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Laboratory for Molecular Gynecology
Head: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Carsten Gründker
Dept. Gynecology and Obstetrics
Chairman: Prof. Dr. med. Günter Emons

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Last Modification:
04.08.2017

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Publications

  • Gründker C, Emons G (1999) GnRH - Mechanisms of Action. In GnRH Analogues, The State of the Art at the Millennium, ed. Lunenfeld B, Parthenon Publishing, Carnforth, pp 7-29

  • Viereck V, Siggelkow H, Gründker C, Raddatz D, Hüfner M, Emons G, Wuttke W (2000) Gene expression of steroid hormone receptors and osteoblast phenotypic markers in HOS 58 cells. Advances in Obstetrics and Gynecology 52:214-221

  • Emons G, Weiß S, Ortmann O, Gründker C, Schulz KD (2000) LHRH might act as a negative autocrine regulator of proliferation of human ovarian cancer. European Journal of Endocrinology 142:665-670

  • Gründker C, Völker P, Schulz KD, Emons G (2000) Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist Triptorelin and antagonist Cetrorelix inhibit EGF-induced c-fos expression in human gynecological cancers. Gynecologic Oncology 78:194-202

  • Gründker C, Schulz K, Günthert AR, Emons G (2000) Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone induces nuclear factor kB-activation and inhibits apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85:3815-3820

  • Westphalen S, Kotulla G, Kaiser F, Krauß W, Werning G, Elsässer HP, Nagy A, Schulz KD, Gründker C, Schally AV, Emons G (2000) Receptor mediated antiproliferative effects of the cytotoxic LHRH agonist AN-152 in human ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. International Journal of Oncology 17:1063-106

  • Gründker C (2000) Cytotoxic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone conjugates and its use in cancer therapy. European Journal of Endocrinology 143:569-572

  • Gründker C, Emons G (2000) GnRH signal transduction in gynecological cancers. Hormone Frontier in Gynecology 7:406-414

  • Gründker C, Emons G (2001) Biology of GnRH systems in cancer and human reproduction. In GnRH Analogues, The State of the Art 2001, ed. Lunenfeld B, Parthenon Publishing, Carnforth, pp 15-42

  • Gründker C, Völker P, Emons G (2001) Antiproliferative signaling of LHRH in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells through G-protein ai-mediated activation of phosphotyrosine phosphatase. Endocrinology 142:2369-2380

  • Gründker C, Schlotawa L, Viereck V, Emons G (2001) Protein kinase C (PKC)-independent stimulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity in human endometrial cancer cells by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist Triptorelin. European Journal of Endocrinology 145:651-658

  • Randelhofer B, Engel U, Sammet I, Schauenburg H, Pauer U, Gründker C, Rüger U, Engel W, Emons G (2001) Familiäres Mamma- und Ovarialkarzinom - Tumorrisiko-Sprechstunde des Universitätsklinikums Göttingen. Niedersächsisches Ärzteblatt 74:33-37

  • Völker P, Gründker C, Schmidt O, Schulz KD, Emons G (2002) Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in human ovarian and endometrial cancers: frequency, autoregulation and correlation with direct antiproliferative activity of LHRH analogues. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 186:171-179

  • Viereck V, Gründker C, Blaschke S, Siggelkow H, Emons G, Hofbauer LC (2002) The phytoestrogen genistein stimulates the production of osteoprotegerin by human trabecular osteoblasts. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 84:725-735

  • Gründker C, Günthert AR, Millar RP, Emons G (2002) Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone II (GnRH-II) receptor in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells and effects of GnRH-II on tumor cell proliferation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 87:1427-1430

  • Viereck V, Emons G, Lauck V, Frosch KH, Blaschke S, Gründker C, Hofbauer LC (2002) Bisphosphonates pamidronate and zoledronic acid stimulate osteoprotegerin production by primary human osteoblasts. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication 291:680-686

  • Gründker C, Völker P, Griesinger F, Ramaswamy A, Nagy A, Schally AV, Emons G (2002) Antitumor effects of cytotoxic LHRH analog AN-152 on human endometrial and ovarian cancers xenografted into nude mice. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 187:528-537

  • Günthert AR*, Gründker C*, Hollmann K, Emons G (2002) Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) induces JunD-DNA binding and extends cell cycle in human ovarian cancer cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication 294:11-15 (*A.R.G. and C.G. contributed equally to this work)

  • Gründker C, Günthert AR, Westphalen S, Emons G (2002) Biology of GnRH systems in human gynecological cancers. European Journal of Endocrinology 146:1-14

  • Emons G, Gründker C, Hanf V (2002) Are estrogens carcinogens? Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie 124:559-565

  • Viereck V, Gründker C, Blaschke S, Niederkleine B, Siggelkow H, Frosch KH, Raddatz D, Emons G, Hofbauer LC (2003) Raloxifene concurrently stimulates osteoprotegerin and inhibits interleukin-6 production by human trabecular osteoblasts. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 88:4206-4213

  • Emons G, Gründker C, Günthert AR, Westphalen S, Kavanagh J, Verschraegen C (2003) GnRH antagonists in the treatment of gynecological and breast cancers. Endocrine Related Cancer 10:291-299

  • Gründker C, Emons G (2003) Role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in ovarian cancer. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 1:65

  • Günthert AR, Gründker C, Böttcher B, Höpker M, Nagy A, Schally AV, Emons G (2004) Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) inhibits cytotoxic agent- and UV-light-induced but not CD95-mediated apoptosis via activation of NFkB. Anticancer Research 24:1727-1732

  • Gründker C, Schlotawa L, Viereck V, Eicke N, Horst A, Kairies B, Emons G (2004) The antiproliferative effects of GnRH antagonist Cetrorelix and of GnRH-II on human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells are not mediated through the GnRH type I (GnRH-I) receptor. European Journal of Endocrinology 151:141-149

  • Günthert AR, Gründker C, Bongertz T, Nagy A, Schally AV, Emons G (2004) Induction of apoptosis by AN-152, a cytotoxic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), in LHRH-R positive human breast cancer cells is independent of multi drug resistance-1 (MDR-1) system. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 87:255-264

  • Günthert AR, Gründker C, Bongertz T, Schlott T, Nagy A, Schally AV, Emons G (2004) Internalisation of cytotoxic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog AN-152 induces multi drug resistance 1 (MDR-1) -independent apoptosis in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cell lines. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 191:1164-1172

  • Gründker C, Günthert AR, Hellriegel M, Emons G (2004) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) inhibits estradiol-induced serum response element (SRE) activation and c-fos expression in human endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer cells. European Journal of Endocrinology 151: 619-628

  • Gründker C, Huschmand Nia A, Emons G (2005) GnRH receptor-mediated gene therapy of gynecological cancers. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 4:225-231

  • Gründker C, Millar RP, Catt KJ, Naor Z, Leung PC, Emons G (2005) Mechanisms of Action of GnRH. In GnRH Analogs in Human Reproduction, ed. Lunenfeld B, Taylor & Francis, London, pp 1-33

  • Eicke N, Günthert AR, Viereck V, Siebold D, Béhé M, Becker T, Emons G, Gründker C (2005) GnRH-II receptor-like antigenicity in human in human placenta and in cancers of human reproductive organs. European Journal of Endocrinology 153:605-612

  • Günthert AR, Gründker C, Olota A, Läsche J, Eicke N, Emons G (2005) Analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) and GnRH-II inhibit EGF-induced signal transduction and resensitize resistant human breast cancer cells to 4OH-tamoxifen. European Journal of Endocrinology 153:613-625

  • Viereck V, Gründker C, Blaschke S, Frosch KH, Schoppet M, Emons G, Hofbauer LC (2005) Atorvastatin stimulates the production of osteoprotegerin by human osteoblasts. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 96:1244-1253

  • Viereck V*, Gründker C*, Friess S, Frosch KH, Raddatz D, Schoppet M, Nisslein T, Emons G, Hofbauer LC (2005) An isopropanolic extract of black cohosh stimulates osteoprotegerin production by human osteoblasts. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 20:2036-2043 (*V.V. and C.G. contributed equally to this work)

  • Girgert R, Schimming H, Körner W, Gründker C, Hanf V (2005) Induction of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells by ELF electromagnetic fields. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication 336:1144-1149

  • Viereck V, Gründker C, Frosch KH, Nisslein T, Hofbauer LC, Emons G (2006) Ein isopropanolischer Extrakt der Traubensilberkerze (iCR) stimuliert die Expression von Osteoprotegerin in primären humanen Osteoblasten. Journal für Menopause 13:18-21

  • von Alten J, Fister S, Schulz H, Viereck V, Frosch KH, Emons G, Gründker C (2006) GnRH analogs reduce invasiveness of human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 100:13-21

  • Schneider F, Tomek W, Gründker C (2006) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its natural analogues: A review. Theriogenology 66:691-709

  • Gründker C, Günthert AR, Emons G (2006) Zielzellspezifische Chemotherapie über den GnRH-Rezeptor. Frauenarzt 47(7):590-592

  • Eicke N, Günthert AR, Emons G, Gründker C (2006) GnRH-II agonist [D-Lys6]GnRH-II inhibits the EGF-induced mitogenic signal transduction in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology 29:1223-1229

  • Fister S, Günthert AR, Emons G, Gründker C (2007) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II antagonists induce apoptotic cell death in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Research 67:1750-1756

  • Hermann RM, Fest J, Christiansen M, Hille A, Rave-Fränk M, Nitsche M, Gründker C, Viereck V, Jarry J, Schmidberger H (2007) Radiosensitisation dependent on p53 function in bronchial carcinoma cells by the isoflavone genistein and estradiol in vitro. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 183:195-202

  • Herrmann RM, Schwarten D, Fister S, Gründker C, Rave-Fränk M, Nitsche M, Hille A, Thelen P, Schmidberger H, Christiansen H (2007) No supra-additive effects of goserelin and radiotherapy on clonogenic survival of prostate carcinoma cells in vitro. Radiation Oncology 2:31

  • Gründker C, Fister S, Emons G (2007) GnRH Rezeptor-vermittelte Tumortherapie. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 67(12):1359-1363

  • Schulten HJ, Wolf-Salgó J, Gründker C, Gunawan B, Füzesi L (2008) Characterization of a newly established uterine carcinosarcoma cell line featuring the sarcomatous phenotype of the tumor in vitro. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 28(2):339-344

  • Girgert R, Gründker C, Emons G, Hanf V (2008) Electromagnetic fields alter the expression of estrogen receptor cofactors in breast cancer cells. Bioelectromagnetics 29(3):169-176

  • Fister S, Schlotawa L, Günthert AR, Emons G, Gründker C (2008) Increase of Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis after knock-down of GnRH receptor expression in human endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer cells. Gynecological Endocrinology 24(1):24-29

  • Hawighorst T, Hussein F, Stein W, Gründker C, Emons G (2008) Anti-Angiogenese: Von der präklinischen Forschung zur klinischen Anwendung. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 68(4):397-403

  • Gründker C, Günthert AR, Emons G (2008) Hormonal Heterogeneity of Endometrial Cancer. In Innovative Endocrinology of Cancer, eds. Berstein LM and Santen RJ, Landes Bioscience, Austin, Texas and Springer, Berlin (Co-publisher), pp 166-188 (ISBN: 978-0-387-78817-3)

  • Schubert A, Schulz H, Emons G, Gründker C (2008) Expression of OPG and RANKL in HCC70 breast cancer cells and effects of GnRH treatment on RANKL expression. Gynecological Endocrinology 24(6):331-338

  • Hermann RM, Wolff HA, Jarry H, Thelen P, Gründker C, Rave-Fraenk M, Schmidberger H, Christiansen H (2008) In vitro studies on the modification of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity in prostate cancer cells by incubation with genistein and estradiol. Radiation Oncology 3:19

  • Girgert R, Hanf V, Emons G, Gründker C (2009) Exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to electromagnetic fields up-regulates the plasminogen-activator system. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 19:334-338

  • Girgert R, Hanf V, Emons G, Gründker C (2009) Membrane-bound melatonin receptor MT1 down-regulates estrogen responsive genes in breast cancer cells. Journal of Pineal Research 47:23-31

  • Emons G, Sindermann H, Schally AV, Gründker C (2009) LHRH receptor targeted chemotherapy using AN-152. Neuroendocrinology 90(1):15-18

  • Fister S, Günthert AR, Aicher B, Paulini KW, Emons G, Gründker C (2009) GnRH-II antagonists induce apoptosis in endometrial, ovarian and breast cancers via activation of stress-induced MAPKs p38 and JNK and pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Cancer Research 69:6473-6481

  • Girgert R, Hanf V, Emons G, Gründker C (2010) Signal transduction of the melatonin receptor MT1 is disrupted in breast cancer cells by electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 31(3):237-245

  • Gründker C, Hawighorst T, Emons G (2010) Tumorstammzellen in Mamma- und weiblichen Genitalkarzinomen. Der Gynäkologe 43:569-573

  • Hawighorst T, Stein W, Gründker C, Emons G (2010) Angiogenese in Reproduktionsmedizin und gynäkologischer Onkologie. Der Gynäkologe 43:595-600

  • Block M, Fister S, Emons G, Seeber S, Gründker C, Günthert AR (2010) Antiproliferative effects of antiestrogens and inhibitors of growth factor receptor signaling on endometrial cancer. Anticancer Research 30(6):2025-2031

  • Gründker C, Föst C, Fister S, Nolte N, Günthert AR, Emons G (2010) GnRH-II antagonist induces apoptosis in MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Breast Cancer Research 12(4):R49

  • Koch M, Hussein F, Woeste A, Gründker C, Frontzek K, Emons G, Hawighorst T (2011) CD36 mediated activation of endothelial cell apoptosis by an N-terminal recombinant fragment of thrombospondin-2 inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis in vivo. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 128(2):337-346

  • Emons G, Kaufmann M, Gorchev G, Tsekova V, Gründker C, Günthert AR, Hanker LC, Velikova M, Sindermann H, Engel J, Schally AV (2010) Dose escalation and pharmacokinetic study of AEZS-108 (AN-152), an LHRH agonist linked to doxorubicin, in women with LHRH receptor-positive tumors. Gynecologic Oncology 119:457-461

  • Olbrich T, Ziegler E, Türk G, Schubert A, Emons G, Gründker C (2010) Kisspeptin-10 inhibits bone-directed migration of GPR54-positive breast cancer cells: evidence for a dose-window effect. Gynecologic Oncology 119:571-578

  • Schubert A, Hawighorst T, Emons G, Gründker C (2011) Agonist and antagonists of GnRH-I and -II reduce metastasis of triple-negative human breast cancer cells in vivo. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 130(3): 783-790

  • Föst C, Duwe F, Hellriegel M, Schweyer S, Emons G, Gründker C (2011) Targeted chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancers via LHRH receptor. Oncology Reports 25:1481-1487

  • Gründker C, Ernst J, Reutter M, Ghadimi BM, Emons G (2011) Effective targeted chemotherapy using AN-152 for LHRH receptor-positive pancreatic cancers. Oncology Reports 26: 629-635

  • Girgert R, Emons G, Gründker C (2012) Inactivation of GPR30 reduces growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells: possible application in targeted therapy. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 134:199-205

  • Block M, Gründker C, Fister S, Kubin J, Wilkens L, Mueller MD, Hemmerlein B, Emons G, Günthert AR (2012) Inhibition of the AKT/mTOR and erbB pathways by gefitinib, perifosine and analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone I and II to overcome tamoxifene resistance in breast cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology  41:1845-1854

  • Reutter M, Emons G, Gründker C (2013) Starving tumors: Inhibition of glycolysis reduces viability of human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells and enhances antitumor efficacy of GnRH receptor-targeted therapies. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 23(1):34-40

  • Ziegler E, Olbrich T, Emons G, Gründker C (2013) Antiproliferative effects of kisspeptin-10 depend on artificial GPR54 (KiSS1R) expression levels. Oncology Reports 29(2):549-554
  • Emons G, Gorchev G, Harter P, Wimberger P, Stähle A, Hanker L, Hilpert F, Beckmann MW, Dall P, Gründker C, Sindermann H, Sehouli J (2014) Efficacy and safety of AEZS-108 (LHRH agonist linked to doxorubicin) in women with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer expressing LHRH receptors: a multicenter phase 2 trial (AGO GYN 5). International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 24(2):260-265

  • Schmidt E, Haase M, Ziegler E, Emons G, Gründker C (2014) Kisspeptin-10 inhibits stromal-derived factor-1-induced invasion of human endometrial cancer cells. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 24(2):210-217

  • Emons G, Gorchev G, Sehouli J, Wimberger P, Stähle A, Hanker L, Hilpert F, Sindermann H, Gründker C, Harter P (2014) Efficacy and safety of AEZS-108 (INN: Zoptarelin doxorubicin acetate) an LHRH agonist linked to doxorubibin in woman with platinum refractory or resistant ovarian cancer expressing LHRH receptors: a multicenter phase II trial of the AGO-study group (AGO GYN 5). Gynecologic Oncology 133(3):427-432

  • Ziegler E, Hansen M-T, Haase M, Emons G, Gründker C (2014) Generation of MCF-7 cells with aggressive metastatic potential in vitro and in vivo. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 148(2):269-277

  • Girgert R, Emons G, Gründker C (2014) Inhibition of GPR30 by estriol successfully prevents growth stimulation of triple-negative breast cancer cells by 17β-estradiol. BMC Cancer 14:935
  • Hinsche O, Girgert R, Emons G, Gründker C (2015) Estrogen receptor β selective agonists reduce invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology 46:878-884

  • Scheerer-Bernhard JU, Tkachenko OY, Heistermann M, Gründker C, Nayudu PL (2015) Body weight associated differences in ovarian morphology in the captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Animal Reproduction Science 157:44-55
  • Gründker C, Bauerschmitz G, Knapp J, Schmidt E, Olbrich T, Emons G (2015) Inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 system-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by kisspeptin-10. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 152(1):41-50

  • Gründker C,  Bauerschmitz G, Schubert A, Emons G (2016) Invasion and increased expression of S100A4 and CYR61 in mesenchymal transformed breast cancer cells is downregulated by GnRH. International Journal of Oncology 48(6):2713-2721

  • Girgert R, Emons G, Gründker C (2017)  Gefitinib inhibits growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells in part by reduction of GPER expression, preventing 17β-estradiol induced cell growth. Oncology Reports 37(2):1212-1218

  • Wokoun U, Hellriegel M, Emons G, Gründker C (2017) Co-treatment of breast cancer cells with pharmacologic doses of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose and Metformin: Starving tumors. Oncology Reports 37(4):2418-2424

  • Gründker C, Emons G (2017) The Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis. Frontiers in Endocrinology 8:187

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